Backed by the US federal government, the Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania wrenched children from their families and banned them from speaking their own language

 The photos show young men and women in traditional clothing next to comparison snaps taken just three years later showing them in smart suits and dresses with western-style haircuts.

The images were taken at Carlisle Indian School, Pennsylvania, US, which focused on rapid assimilation of Native Americans to western culture

Founded in 1879 by Captain Henry Pratt under the authority of the US federal government, Carlisle was a boarding school where Pratt infamously attempted to “Kill the Indian: Save the Man” through any means necessary.

It is estimated that more than 10,000 Native American children attended Carlisle between 1879 and 1918.

Students were forbidden from speaking their own language, their hair was cut and they had to be dressed in suits, ties and corseted dresses.

Student known as White Buffalo soon after he arrived in Carlisle in 1881, left, and some time after dressed in a suit 

They often didn’t go home for years and were taught trades, such as baking and blacksmithing, designed to give them a foothold in the white world after graduation.

Photographer John Choate took pictures of scores of Carlisle students before and after they went to the school – to demonstrate the transformation they underwent there.

 Young Native American Thomas Moore, before and after assimilation, circa 1897 

 Tom Torlino before in 1883 and with a trimmed western hair in 1886 

 Four Native American children taken in 1880, just a year after the Carlisle Indian School opened 

 A group of Navajo Native American students in 1882 were when they first arrived and a snap taken years later 

 Three Sioux indians as they arrived at the Carlisle Indian School in 1883 and an after snap taken years later 

 A group of Chiricahua Apaches after arriving from a prison camp in 1887 and a later shot showing them in western-style clothes

The lions have been able to make the longest journey back all thanks to the heroic rescue efforts of Animal Defenders International (ADI).

 Thirty-three former circus lions are finally able to feel grass and dirt under their paws, and the warm African sun on their backs after a lifetime of pain and misery bestowed upon them by travelling circuses in Peru and Colombia.

Tim Phillips, Animal Defenders International co-founder told ‘eyewitness news’ that they had faced incredible challenges in tracking down and rescuing the lions from illegal circuses in Peru and Colombia.

ADI have worked with governments to impose bans on Circus animals, but sadly once they are banned they begin to only operate in remote areas and are pushed underground. ADI have worked tirelessly to track down the circuses still in operation and seize the animals.

This was not a quick job, it took the efforts of hundreds and over 18 months but it was well worth it.

Of the 100 or so total animals rescued, 33 were lions. These beautiful regal big cats have suffered almost a lifetime of abuse and unnatural conditions, confined to tiny cages.

Since these lions have been kept for so long, they would no longer be able to survive in the wild. Many have had their claws removed and their teeth filed down.


Its focus is on spiritual matters as well as the physical because it deals with a game its adherents believe is just about as old as time.

 A new documentary, Spirit Game: Pride of a Nation, dives deep into the Iroquois’ “medicine game,” as it’s known to them, and into how politics and culture collide at the World Indoor Lacrosse Championship, far removed from the Exeters and Deerfield Academies of the westernized world. The story centers on Iroqouis coach Chief Oren Lyons and his efforts to promote the team and the sports’ indigenous history.

When the World Indoor Lacrosse Championships were hosted by the Onondaga Nation in 2015 it was a big deal. Former U.S. Vice President Al Gore even attended, and rooted for the Iroquois Nationals over Team USA. Never before had an Indigenous Nation hosted a championship of that caliber, putting not only the Indigenous history of lacrosse and the prowess of the Iroquois Nationals on the world stage, but the very sovereignty of the people. This story is told in the new documentary “Spirit Game: Pride of a Nation,” which premieres May 24 in Hollywood and June 3 in Syracuse, NY.

“This story is so important it clearly has to have a Hollywood Premier,” explains Executive Producer Gayle Anne Kelley, “but the Syracuse Premier, in the Onondaga Nation’s traditional territory, is the most significant. This is their story.”

The film showing, at 2 pm Saturday June 3 at the Palace Theater, is free and open to all citizens of the six Haudenosaunee nations on a first-come, first-serve basis as well as invited guests. A second showing will immediately follow the first to accommodate those unable to be seated for the first showing.

Director Peter Spirer and Executive Producers Gayle Kelley and Oren Lyons will be in attendance with other VIPs.

Spirit Game: Pride of a Nation not only features thrilling non-fiction sports drama, including the dynamic action of the legendary Thompson Brothers, but offers a primer on the long, rich tradition of the sport.

Excitement for the film is building: an exclusive clip posted on Yahoo! Movies received 19 million hits. The film will be shown in select theaters across the country including the film’s Public Opening at the Palace Theater in Syracuse at 7 PM on June 24. The movie will be available on Amazon and on iTunes on June 20.


Wingham Wildlife Park welcomed their first ever European wolf pups into the park this month. The litter of four pups were born on Wednesday,  and took ten days to open their eyes.

 Wolves have been part of Wingham Wildlife Park since 2013, when Dakota - the mother of this litter of pups - and her sister Arya came to the UK from Parc Animalier de Sainte Croix in France.

Markus Wilder, park curator, added: "They all have their eyes open already and are moving around really well. When Dakota first made her den, it was quite shallow, but we can see now why she has been excavating it more – making it deeper and steeper. Whilst she is doing really well, it's obviously also a bit of a learning curve for her."

The European wolf is a subspecies of the grey wolf, which used to be the world's most widely distributed mammal.

However, while it used to be found throughout most of Europe, this particular subspecies is now already extinct in the UK, Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Austria and Switzerland.

Tony said: "When we first built the European wolf enclosure it was designed to be big and laid out in a natural manner.

It features a nice big pond which they actually go in to during the hotter months, as well as plenty of British bushes and trees. We had always designed it with the intention of building up a nice sized pack, which these pups are going to let us do.


Another of the “lost cities” of North America may have been found, according to Dr. Donald Blakeslee, an archaeologist at Wichita State University.

The Wichita Indians who discovered Francisco Vásquez de Coronado in 1541 and Juan de Oñate y Salazar in 1601, according to archaeological evidence, had been farming since 900 CE. The Indians who encountered the Spanish intruders lived in fairly big cities for the times. Coronado called the city he visited Quivira; Oñate found his way to an urban center he called Etzanoa.

The Spanish were looking for the “Seven Cities of Gold,” which in hindsight were probably inventions of various Indians to get rid visitors who were eating their food, raping their women, and forcing them to labor for the benefit of Spain. Not finding the golden cities, the Spanish explorers were less than exact in explaining the locations they had visited. That inexactness let to disputes that play out today among archaeologists and those of us who observe archaeologists in their native habitats.

Blakeslee believes he has found the location of Etzanoa near the confluence of the Arkansas and Walnut Rivers in southern Kansas. If the Spanish estimates are correct, Etzanoa would have been an urban center with a population that would rival Cahokia. Etzanoa does not, however, contain any public spaces the size of the Cahokia mounds. The distinctive Wichita dwellings—they look like wooden and straw beehives—contain little that would not weather away with time, leaving only traces archaeologists would have to get down in the dirt to find.

The conquistador was stunned by the city's size. Though the rest of the tribe had fled Etzanoa for hiding at Oñate's arrival, he saw a sprawling settlement across thousands of acres along the bluffs of the confluence of two rivers.

The only recorded accounts of Etzanoa come from the expedition of Spanish conquistador Juan de Oñate, who in 1601 led a party into the Great Plains in search of a fabled 'city of gold' The Spaniard reported the city had 2,000 large, beehive-shaped houses, each large enough to house 10 people, for an estimated population of 20,000.

That would make Etzanoa comparable in size to Cahokia, in Illinois, long considered the largest pre-Columbian settlement north of Mexico City.

Growing nervous at the size of the population they stumbled across, Oñate's party of roughly 100 men turned back, retracing their steps southward. Experts believe that smallpox and other diseases may have raced through the dense settlement after contact with the Europeans, wiping out the city.

Blakeslee continues to dig, and is pushing for the creation of an information center or museum to develop tourism in the area.

He's also been in touch with the modern-day Wichita, who number around 3,000.

'We’re really proud that all this history happened here, and we want to share it with the world,' said Hap McLeod, who owns the property where the cannon shot was found.