Native Americans Descended From A Single Ancestral Group, DNA Study Confirms

The suppression of the Native Americans and the decimation of their culture is a black page in the history of the United States. The discrimination and injustices towards this ancient race, which had lived on the American continent long before the European conquerors came to this land, are still present to this day despite the efforts of different groups and organizations trying to restore the justice.

The destruction of their culture is one of the most shameful aspects of our history, the extent of the damage that was done is still being down-played and denied entry into textbooks and history-lessons to this day.

The origin and history of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas have been studied for years by researchers from different countries, and a recent DNA study showed that the genealogy of the western aboriginals is one of the most unique in the world.

The question of whether Native Americans derived from a single Asian population or from a number of different populations has been a subject of research for decades. Now, having compared the DNA samples from people of modern Native American and Eurasian groups, an international team of researchers concluded on the validity of the single ancestral population theory.

The study follows up on earlier research that found a unique variant of a genetic marker in the DNA of modern descendants of Native Americans. “While earlier studies have already supported this conclusion, what’s different about our work is that it provides the first solid data that simply cannot be reconciled with multiple ancestral populations,” said Kari Britt Schroeder of the University of California, one of the authors of the study.

As a result of the previous research, the so-called “9-repeat allele” (or variant) was found in all of the 41 Native American and Asian (from the western side of the Bering Strait) populations that were sampled. At the same time, the allele was absent in all 54 of the Eurasian, African and Oceanian groups that were also sampled in the study.

The researchers supposed that the distribution of the allele was due to the fact that all these ethnic groups (modern Native Americans, Greenlanders and western Beringians) derived from a common founder population, which had been isolated from the rest of the Asian continent thousands of years prior to their migration to the Americas.

This explanation was persuasive enough; however, there was no strong evidence to support it. There were two other plausible versions to explain the distribution of the 9-repeat allele among the modern descendants of Native Americans.

If the 9-repeat allele had originated as a multiple mutation, its presence in the Americas would not suggest common ancestry. Thus, if there had been more than one ancestral founder population and the 9-repeat allele had been present only in one of them, it could possibly have passed to the other ethnic groups and spread among them. If there also had been a second, beneficial allele located very close to the 9-repeat allele, it would certainly have been carried into new populations. At the same time, long stretches of DNA surrounding the 9-repeat allele would be carried along with the beneficial allele due to the mechanisms of natural selection.

In order to check the validity of this hypothesis, researchers led by Noah Rosenberg of the University of Michigan analyzed DNA samples from people from Asian, Native American, Greenlandic and two western Beringian populations, and found that all the samples with the 9-repeat allele had a distinct pattern of base pairs in short stretches of DNA.

As Schroeder noted, “If natural selection had promoted the spread of a neighboring advantageous allele, we would expect to see longer stretches of DNA than this with a similarly distinct pattern. And we would also have expected to see the pattern in a high frequency even among people who do not carry the 9-repeat allele. So we can now consider the positive selection possibility unlikely.”

These findings also excluded the multiple mutations theory, because in this case there would have been myriad DNA patterns surrounding the 9-repeat allele.

“Our work provides strong evidence that, in general, Native Americans are more closely related to each other than to any other existing Asian populations, except those that live at the very edge of the Bering Strait,” concluded Schroeder. (Source)

The results of the study were published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evolution.

Journal Reference: Schroeder et al. Haplotypic Background of a Private Allele at High Frequency in the Americas. Molecular Biology and Evolution,
 From Science Daily

Responses to "DNA Analysis Shows That Native American Genealogy Is One of the Most Unique in the World"

  1. What is always ignored, is the possibility of humans having more that one point of origin, but oral tradition has always held that native people simply began here.

  2. Bonny says:

    So it is conclusive then, that the American Aboriginal peoples all came from Asia?

  3. Anonymous says:

    Right? The 'stories' of our origins and our clan origins are always ignored. There is even a story I heard from the West Alaskan coast a Nation there told about coming over the water but there were people already here and some were not welcoming.

  4. Anonymous says:

    Be sure, the stories are not ignored by ALL. Indeed, the kinship to Star Beings.

  5. Anonymous says:

    How does anyone know that this is not where human life began. They keep making discoveries of man in North America over 50,000 years. Either way, people came to South America by boat and hit the Coasts of America much earlier than many people even realize, not just the Bearing Straigt.. Some of the Native American Tribes, such as the Tonkawa from Texas, had a ceremony, where they come from the earth. Interesting history, the Comanche hated the Tonkawa, because they were cannibalistic, and also helped the US Govt. One quote from Quanah Parker about the Tonkawah, was that his heart burned hot in anger for the Tonkawa.

  6. Anonymous says:

    Interesting. North American First Nation members have notions of creation just like Europeans, Africans, and so on. The myths of creation are a matter of faith. The DNA analysis shows one Asian group as origin of North America's First Nation. Traditional beliefs will remain for many years. Not worth an argument.

  7. Anonymous says:

    we can from the sky why else do you think we call it turtle island

  8. Do we get our DNA from our Creator?

  9. Anonymous says:

    We natives are from hear we migrated across to asia thats why you only find the same dna on the very edge of the bering strait and you find it all over the americas

    From hear to there..

  10. Anonymous says:

    Alot of western alaskan natives came through makah lands. Known as neah bay washington today.

  11. Little Bird Wings, Lori says:

    How original can you get is why their destruction was sought and still live on due to their unique DNA shows Native American genealogy, the most unique in the world.

  12. Anonymous says:

    Native Americans were sent from the Creator to be keepers of the earth.

  13. Anonymous says:

    we know where we came from that's all that matters

  14. Anonymous says:

    Mama is who I was borne from...and thankfully all you were born too...who would read this post?

  15. Anonymous says:

    Its important to pass on the history of your roots, no matter the race. Growing up 15 minutes away fromthe nisqually res, i learned a lot from my classmates on the importance of native culture and preservation of the past. In my opinion native tribes across america and canada are keepers of the earth, care more about each other as a tribe and frankly everyone could learn a lesson from the knowledge passed down by ancestors of every tribe. Take a minute and learn and listen. Society would be better off if this was done

  16. Anonymous says:

    although my blood is part European it also comes from three Native American tribes they are Choctaw, Cherokee, and Comanche, and I'm very proud of all three

  17. Anonymous says:

    I want to make it clear that absolutely nothing, and I mean that, NOTHING in our cultures have been lost. Certainly, many of the people have been wiped out. Many died from the diseases brought by the white man, for which they had no natural immunities. Many were killed in the land grabbing, so that even when elders were given specific properties, they still lost them to the overwhelming greed of the white man, and were even killed for that land. My own grandparents lost their land in this way, though they did live through it, when the government decided to "break up" the reservation, and gave each family their "own" piece of land, but they could not handle their own money. They had to beg if they wanted to purchase a plow with their own funds. of course, these "Church people" who were over-seeing these funds for our people were siphoning off every bit of it that they could, until eventually they just took it all, leaving our people with nothing. Many were left with worthless land, when the oil companies explored on their land, but did not tell them that the land would be useless for farming later, after oil would get spread all over, so they could not even sell it. So they were penniless. The US government has still yet to settle for all of the lost monies on these accounts. But the cultures are not "lost". They are only "lost" to the white anthropologists who are looking for them, who want to study them. They will not find them. But I assure you, all of our knowledge still exists, all of what we know about the land, about Mother Earth and Father Sky, about the animals and the herbs, we still have it all, though many of the people may be gone on to the council fires in the sky. We do not forget them, and they do not forget us.But do not look for this knowledge, for it will not be imparted to the Rainbow people, until it is time. Until then, it remains with us, shared only between us, and kept alive only by us, for we know what happens when the white man takes hold of anything.

  18. Jean Smart Australia says:

    Wow...Thank you for your post, in 1 word...Excellent! Thank you for that.

  19. Jean Smart Australia says:

    Wow...Thank you for your post, in 1 word..
    Excellent! Thank you

  20. Anonymous says:

    So this mean that the Native Americans are also immigrants to the United States! Since they started in Asia they had to travel to this continent!

  21. Anonymous says:

    I believe that because in Alaska the Escimos speak Navajo

  22. Anonymous says:

    I question this study. If you study blood types Asian people and Native American people do not share the same blood types. How then can they be related?

  23. Anonymous says:

    I am bit not native American but the more I know of the common beliefs of the tribes, I can agree. I feel akin to the teachings and being one with the earth. If only others would not fear the teachings but embrace them. <3 we are here to care for the earth.

  24. Anonymous says:

    Can't people just believe American Indians just lived here and didn't come from anywhere else? What about the south Americans and deep south. This world is small, people were located all over. This land was not just sitting waiting to be used. AMERICAN Indians just took care of it for thousands of years till the Illegals showed up and caused wars and destroyed everything.

  25. Anonymous says:

    I'll agree with this statement

  26. Anonymous says:

    That's whats up truth!

  27. Anonymous says:

    They are related through trans migration. It goes both ways. Do you really think people only travelled in one direction? If there was trade it happened both ways and marriage would have been part of that process. The Asians were their own race and the First Nations were their own race. If the Asians were the foundation race of First Nations then all the Chinese, Japanese, Korean etc. would have the same DNA, but they don't. The only reason the so called "authorities" won't admit they are their own race is because their argument for colonization loses ground. You know the statement that the Native Americans were not really here first they were just dislocated Asians. Colonizers don't want to face up to the damage they have done.

  28. lothar depping says:

    in fact we are all metis minimum in informations. with halebopp came back after again 3600 years an fact in spirit-knowledge and left some newold conciousnesses here that are known as sons/daughters and others jumped over to find o more about universal knowledge. american indian people knows this, great spirit sended this "email"from 1600 bc.

  29. Anonymous says:

    Well they didn't murder anyone to live here if no one was here before.

  30. Anonymous says:


  31. Anonymous says:

    True that.

  32. Redhand says:

    At one point the landmass covered the Bering Strait. There was not always water between 2 lands. At any rate, it all happened thousands of years ago. So, we're unique. We already knew that. We are who we are. Just like other groups. Don't make a lot of controversy over this. We must look to the future, not the past. We are all related, remember.

  33. Anonymous says:

    What I originally read was the first of the land were "The People" ( loosely translated from original people) and over many time periods spread into many nations, and all took care of the land and all creatures thereon

  34. kpop_rub says:

    Eskimos don't speak Navajo. You are talking about the Athabaskan indians of alaska which are distinct from Eskimos. They speak languages from the same language family as Navajo but they cannot understand eachother. Those languages split at least a thousand years ago.

  35. kpop_rub says:

    Blood types have very little bearing on race. Some blood types are more common among certain races but the 5 blood types are found in every corner of the world. I think you are talking about DNA groupings. Indian belong to mtDNA (mother's lineage) groups A,B,C,D, and X. All these groupings are found exclusively in Asia except for X which is also found in Northern Europe but it has been found the Indians descend from Asian X group and the European group also has links the original Asian group. The difference is modern Asians have many more groups and are far more diverse in genetics than Indians. Which means Indians descended from a small group of Asians - who still have descendent living on both sides of the Bering but these latter groups never made it to the Americas. Only the oldest Asians came over, then the flow of people stopped.

  36. Anonymous says:

    Awesome, may the truth be told.

  37. Anonymous says:

    ok.... If memory serves me correctly, over 30,000+ years ago in the americas there were GIANT versions of the animals we might know today..think mammoth, or a 10 foot tall beaver etc... these animals were what we call the indigenous people of the americas, they were fairly easy to hunt because they did not have a knowledge or instincts to fear humans as a predators and began to die out, or evolve..where only the smaller faster animals survived. Because of periods of interglaciation on earth every 13,000 to 25,000 years there wouldve been migrations into new areas and over iced lands, in search of food etc. Perhaps in different directions. You aslo have the case of the Clovis/Fulsom point spear/arrowhead ttransition of radtion...which was a result of some catacylsmic event in the americas triggering a mini- ice age. After a period of living in caves etc..a whole new form of arrowhead point emerged. ALSO< according to HOPI creation story there was a "great flood" and they landed in what is now the "four corners" in the usa. After the waters of this great flood subsided various "clans" spread out in spiral pattern throughout the americas eventually becoming all of the many indegnous cultures and tribes of the americas.. Star people can of course visit earth at any time during this history. So, there is no need to make assumptions that are impossible to prove. Indigenous peoples of the americas could be part "star people" but also part of an ancient migration during ice ages. The northeast tribes also have CAUCASIAN dna that can be traced back to France around 26,000 years ago so I am surpised that this is not mentioned.
    Of course you do not have to be "full blooded" or even have any "indigenous" blood to practice indigenous culture or values. It was not the practice to kill or scalp ever until the Europeans came and invented and taught these vile practices.
    I myself have many kinds of european blood as well as Hedenosaunee mohawk. What is important is the great spirit that resides in all things and the law of "reciprocity".. "for what you take you must also give back". And yes... I learned this all without a proper initiation into any tribe or culture.
    -Star Turtle Feather

  38. Anonymous says:

    When you say "native american" you are talking about USA or the whole America (North, Central, South)?. It is interesant, for example, to know if "collas", "aymarás" from Bolivia, Peru and Northern Chile, are so close related with the rest of the natives from America since their physcal characteristics are so different from the rest of the native american of the whole continent.

  39. Anonymous says:


  40. Anonymous says:

    I believe Natives have always been here.....Maybe its the Asians that went over the "Bering Strait". Like "THEY" said Columbus found us Native people. That too was BS....excuse me we were never lost. It is only when the settlers started coming that natives were displaced & lost.... "THEY" should quit trying to make something....into something to fit their needs....

  41. Anonymous says:

    But that was, like, 20, 000 years ago...

  42. Anonymous says:

    Does this then shut down the Mormon story of Indigenous Americans being what they call Lamanites, who descended from Hebrews who supposedly migrated from the Mediterranean to the Americas ... and therefore shoot a hole in their Book of Mormon stories?

  43. Anonymous says:

    The people of this world do not know everything. Our Celtic, Norse and Jews were here much longer much earlier than historians thought. If one looks at the Bimini Road you can see how man came from the mid east here. The Cherokee dna is said to contain Jewish roots, Celtic, Norse and Spanish backgrounds That says a great deal. The fact is those peoples were here much earlier than ever thought. When one compares the physical dna along with the written history a real story comes together. Humans found in the USA are a compilation of American Indian, and all the rest. The stories of the great flood are backed up in geology, and the written word and oral history of the tribes.

  44. Anonymous says:

    We all come from Adam & Eve, let's not deceive the obvious. All try and circle around false truths to discourage one another from believing something other than the truth, it's a never ending circle....

  45. Anonymous says:

    Why does it have to be one Adam and one Eve? We limit our thoughts by what we are told. To those not from Earth we are all people of Earth.

  46. Anonymous says:

    You so right

  47. Anonymous says:

    We couldn't have all descended from just 2 people, our DNA would not have survived that incestuous scenario. The proof is right in the article above

  48. Anonymous says:

    Who says we came from asia, maybe the greenlanders and beringians came from north america. No one will ever know but we are different and I am proud to be from a tribal nation that they tried to wipe out but we are still here.

  49. Anonymous says:

    Thank u for stating the obvious. Everytime our origins are questioned here comes adam and eve to solve it for us....ive heatd the same West Alaskan story...Im Cawtaba in the Deep how did our Ancestors hear thecsame story...its Wonderful. And Sacred so plz leave it alone.

  50. Anonymous says:

    I totally agree

  51. Anonymous says:

    And will continue to be!
    So proud my children share the DNA!

  52. Anonymous says:


  53. Anonymous says:

    Shit that's all you got from the article.. Everyone migrated my people have been here our burial grounds out date your john smith ass head stone.. You ppl are idiots and we will live like God intended

  54. Anonymous says:

    Thank you!! That's why they only see Native American artifacts on the barring strait we went there not we migrated here.. In my best singing voice!.... ASSsssswiiiupEs

  55. Anonymous says:

    Ahhh...but this you may not know. There have found in Oregan a body that pre-dates the Bering strait theory. And another in...shoot, I forget where but another , in the US, that was found dating back 12000 years ago. That fricken pre-dates the dang ice age in Europe!! This is All Native Land!

  56. Anonymous says:

    Beautiful truth about a truly Chosen people.

  57. Check Genesis again. It's obviously a collection of creation stories. The creationists theory has Ad n Eve turning up after Native Americans have been proved by science to be in Nth America..... never mind the Aus indigenous people's occupation of 'Terra Nullis'....

  58. Hey. Stop the fussin stop the fightin. Mourn the tragedies of the past. Learn from them and act now to create the future that's right. Think its about time we got past, my people are better n your people. Wanna live in a world of fighting and pain or do you want something better?

  59. Better to know who you are, where you are going and what you are going to do now.

  60. A people without its history is like a tree without its roots - Marcus Garvey

  61. Both could be true...... Add in vikings and possibly pre egyptians.... people have a habit of moving around. Columbus was travelling in almost exactly the wrong direction when he bumped into the Americas. .... hence 'American Indians'.

  62. Good comment. You speak with a truly heart.

  63. Agree re dna coming together with traditional stories to create a bigger picture..... but have a feeling that native peoples pre date the Jews.

  64. Anonymous says:


  65. Anonymous says:


  66. Anonymous says:


  67. Anonymous says:

    Technically if you believe the bible: all life was destroyed by the flood therefore we are descendants of Noah and HIS family....just saying

  68. Anonymous says:

    You say the people on the reservations were left pennyless because of the white man but what is the excuse now? I see tribal members and your own people embezzling the money that belongs to the tribe and reservations now. So maybe during that time in history it was the white man's fault but it isn't now when it's the own tribal council doing it

  69. Anonymous says:

    The peace if ten thousand years has arrived.....,peace be onto you brother....

  70. Anonymous says:

    Well said

  71. this article actualy confirms that Native DNA is unique to the American contenant and states it that way directly. Sorry for those who do not want too admit this. And to those making with the big Injun talk. A scientific study just proved the culture trackable through DNA not prose. to the one who says that anthropologists are searching for a culture that isnt lost.think on this .. are over 600 differnt cultural groups each sharing the "Unique" DNA marker. None of them located on any other contnent than north and south america...but many many people perished before they could share all of the old ways., some of wich concerned knowing the balance and sustainability of this verry diverse and spread out population ...there are things we as tribal peoples have forgoten that nobody els ever knew. The knowledge of all things is not a comodity. Knowledge is the seed that grows to feed us and build our shelters and eventualy cary us to the next camp so the old one can heal. Thats how the strangers got here, they didnt know how to keep the balance and had to find other we all must work together where ever we came from. there never was a new world just this one. p.s. DNA science can now geographicaly race plant species down to a 30 mile radius. this article is only one study thanks for reading -MUXIE

  72. Anonymous says:

    so I have two things. so based on what this article just hold me the Native Americans are also not native to the Americas they also migrated here. secondly there is no forgiving what the Americans did when they came to this land but let's not forget that they were brought here by the Spanish. the Spanish were the ones who started the slaughter of the Native Americans.

  73. Anonymous says:

    The Book of Mormon explains alot.

  74. Anonymous says:

    My wife is considered to be Asian but her family says no. They consider themselves to be Buryats which is decendants of Mongolians. They also told me that the American indian is a decendent of the Buryats. I didn't believe it at first until I say a Buryat souvenir stand with an American indian dream catcher hanging from the ceiling and my wife told me they make those to sell. My wife's family also told me they crossed the Bering straits during the years of Ghingis Khan and into Alaska and from there down into America. Buryat in English means wolf

  75. Anonymous says:

    Everyone who is saying adam and eve this and adam and eve that are not seeing that they are the illegals in our tribes in our land in our history. The ones who say adam and eve are rhe ones that made navajo walk. And brought up custer. Native americans are all different having different chiefs and leaders different traditions and lifestyle and their own way if life was interrupted because "certain people" just had to move them and let them die in the way. Didnt care if they fell it was up to them to get up. Elders were pushed around and children were abandoned because certain people wanted them to keep moving. What was wrong with going around them and explore their lands with their aide of guidance? How hard was that? Now they expect illegals to be un armed forces. Now illegals can do anything. They run the world. Native americans are strong individuals they know what they need to do. They survived this long they earn respect. Not adam and eve. Why put them throught hell to have a historic story later? All that for fame? No thats not right. Believe what you want native americans were here first. The blood runs strong.

  76. Anonymous says:

    its hard to comprehend being labeled an "immigrant" when there was no one here in the Pacific Northwest to Western Alaska before…most Native Americans or America's Natives are Aboriginal to the land set forth. It wasn't the Spaniards or the Vikings who invaded territories which were already occupied & how did Thanksgiving come to be? China having close to 2 billion people can easily be considered the first man to step on the moon…so to speak

  77. Anonymous says:

    Quick question where did adam and eve's son cain's wife come from

  78. Anonymous says:

    Shall we make reparations to every nation we have conquered? Just wondering.

  79. Anonymous says:

    This starts to make it even more clear that the Mormons do have it right.

  80. Anonymous says:

    So cool!

  81. Anonymous says:

    Science has made the 9-repeat allele tie to North America and the West side of the Bering Strait. How do we know that migration did not go East to West?

  82. Anonymous says:

    Scientific proof opposing the popular land bridge theory is irrelevant because whether or not this theory is true, it is just another justification for the theft of the white man from the red man. Theft of language, culture, religion, heritage, traditions, and lives of Native people, not simply land. There has and will always be some reason to discredit and belittle Natives.

  83. Anonymous says:

    Name;Joseph Rolling Thunder. There is no archeological evidence that the Native Americans came here from anywhere. We have always been here.The idea that we came from Asia,and are therefore also "immigrants" is,what is that word? Oh yeah STUPID! In fact there is more evidence to suggest that WE migrated in the other direction,and it was US woh supplanted the Neanderthal in Europe. (paintings ogf American Bison and pronghorns in caves in the Pyrenees Clovis arrowheads in Germany. Read American Genisis by Dr. Jeffrey Goodman.

  84. Anonymous says:

    Adam and Eve are make-believe. My Sachem ancestors are real, and what is told by them, and passed down; I trust them, and never a book!

  85. Anonymous says:

    Nowadays natives on my rez have a lot of kids to get more checks. Smh. Its sick . They do nothing but drink with the money. WhenWe have so many privileges on the seneca rez that a lot of other nations, don't. Bc they're poor. When we need to think about ways to keep our native people alive. And learn our native language. Someday the white man may wake up and say you're not native unless you speak your native lang. Natives need to live by the original culture. Natives don't celebrate Christmas and easter. Get out of the church. Get the churches off the native lands.

  86. Anonymous says:

    Coming from a half breed of black and seneca and cayuga. I believe there is three main races . White, black and asian. And we all come from them . Think about it; hispanics, Hawaiians, Asians and natives all look alike. Some look black. Old time photos of my ancestors on my native side look a lil black. Look at some of the native legendary ppl. Such as Geronimo. We're all related. Cut us open we're the same on the inside. Lets all love one another. And who care what our DNA looks like

  87. Anonymous says:

    No they don't those racist ppl trying to just get more members

  88. Anonymous says:

    No the story in the book of morman is false. I'm half native and some on my native side believe that crap. which I don't . For one why are you telling me the lamanites are dark skin bc we were bad ppl. How is that gonna get me to join. The religion was made up. they're racist toward anyone dark.

  89. Anonymous says:

    Redhand, but it is important and needs to come to light for the sake of The People. It may be a way to use as leverage against the injustices that have been done and still continue. I don't know how much leverage with the ever growing corruption in gov, but every little bit helps...

  90. Anonymous says:

    Someone above said re: the Mormon book, that Hebrews came here.
    My friend is a Maori from New Zealand and she has a geneaology that places Maori back in the Middle East. It is also known that they could make kayaks that can travel the high seas. I agree, the colonists wrote their own history so to take all for themselves and this is a tragedy of epic proportions. And that they still fail to see their errors is a greater tragedy. It is said it will take one hundred years for a great healing: mind, body, heart. Someone above said that the Indians know their stories and don't share them. This is true. I met and befriended a Paiute Elder and he told me some things.... thanks for all the information.

  91. Anonymous says:

    This article is interesting, but not surprising. Even a little bit of logic would make it clear - the First Nations were here for millennia, isolated by geography and climate from other large continents, and long enough to develop this unique DNA.
    There are physical similarities in indigenous peoples from the furthest reaches of South America to the deep North of Canada - bloodlines that evolved pure over many 10's of thousands of years.
    There are likewise similarities in cultures and traditions across these vast areas.
    Despite the European incursion, it would take more than a few hundred years to dilute these bloodlines.
    I also find the introduction of non-Native religious doctrine into this conversation a little inappropriate, particularly as it regards the Americas and the First Nations. The article is about the unique research into a long, unbroken familial chain. Not who or what brought them about.

  92. Anonymous says:

    Columbus's accidental finding of the Americas is false.The only reason we were called Indians is because he was looking for India.I consider myself Mi'kmaq from the Mi'Kmaq tribe of the east.Keepers of the Dawn.I reside in what non-natives call Canada.I am not north american Indian,I am not a Canadian,I consider myself to be Mi'Kmaq first and foremost and use the word FIRST very strongly.

  93. anonymous says:

    If you actually took the time to read the book of mormon you would know that we became the more righteous ppl of this land and is why we were not completely destroyed but we did have to suffer as a ppl because of the wrong doings of our first ancestors.

  94. Anonymous says:

    We are all just human. Regardless of race we are individuals with our own unique qualities
    We are here to bring back herring , cod salmon. Fish habitat incorporated into aquaculture

  95. Anonymous says:

    In the bible it says Cain moved to the land of Nod and took a wife... Who created her is anyone's guess.

  96. Anonymous says:

    I have read the book of Mormon. The idea that God used skin color as indication of spiritual status is obscene and dangerous. Anyone with free will has a choice of what to believe about God. To believe that God is the originator of racism is to avoid personal responsibility for having ta racist society. We each need to be aware and counteract beliefs, philosophies, attitudes which set a group of people as having more/ less value based on skin color.

  97. Anonymous says:

    Why do men have nipples? Because every mammal, including humans, started life potentially female . What does that say about Adam and Eve?

  98. Anonymous says:

    well whats sad is the people here think there wasn't a race of people already living here ??? does everyone think there was a big open place like north America and is didn't have people living on it?? the history book only want to erace the sad story of what happened to these people and that really it !! they murdered them off and still have them in prison camps ( aka ) reservations ..still to this day 2015 ??? what other country is still doing this ??? and for over 500 years ??? sad !!!

  99. Anonymous says:

    what the Spanish and English and French did to the Natives was reprehensible. No doubt about it. But to say that they are still in "prison camps" in 2015 - really? Where does it say that they have to stay there? Oh yes, to receive Federal welfare - or to practice different laws -

  100. Coyote says:

    You're all as useless as tits on a bull. Natives and the land were created for one another, we will always be here. I know, I created them.

  101. I agree with Muriel Clark. Most people seem to miss the obvious. Our older genrations have, did and STILL suffer. And has effected our generation to a great deal. Most tribes have been lost, because of the white-man hatred. Non-native's try to make it sound so easy, Stop fussin, you clearly have no idea! As long as I'm here on earth, I will not let it be unjustified. My son's will carry our culture onto further generations.

  102. Anonymous says:

    There is plenty of evidence that leads us to believe there was a pre-Clovis culture already in the Americas before Native American ancestors arrived.

  103. Anonymous says:

    We need to start being factually correct and stop calling them First Nation. There was a pre-Clovis civilization in North America prior to their arrival.

  104. Anonymous says:

    I've enjoyed the dialogue. Gives me a new perspective.

  105. Anonymous says:

    Sarah Backus, I have a Sarah ann Backus in my family tree. She was my Great Grandmother..married to Garrett Bennet. Are you related to the same Sarah?

  106. Anonymous says:

    Where is your documentation? Your siting of primary and secondary source material? If you are going to post a scholarly style post... making claims and assertations... don't you feel compelled to PROVE your theory? If you were passing on Oral history...verbatim... that would not be necessary... but you use white man's style and terminology... without it's ONLY truth detector... source documentation. Until proper documentation is offered this is no more valid than an op-ed piece...opinion....or pig-slop.

  107. Anonymous says:

    btw... yes there are 2 other 'developed world' countries, beyond US continuing abuses they are Canada and Australia. Nice to know we are in exclusive club of top 3, ehh? America the great...lololololol amazing how much gets done with our a**es in the air and our heads stuck in the sand. Those who do not see the continuing abuses against our brothers and sisters are no better than their ancestors who let it happen in the first place. You want issues to understand? read Indian Country Today news. look into the Danns sisters Shoshone elders...KXL pipeline, theft of Native soveriegn tribal land (both sides of border), AZ tribal land grab ('swap' is trickster's word), Native kids being taken out of community...still, sooo soo many.... beyond Stockholm syndrome prevalent throughout ndn country...and in city ndns even moreso.

  108. Anonymous says:

    We the book of Mormon says that native Americans are Jews that came to this continent around 200 ad and that they split into two tribes the the nephites and the lamaniets And they fought with each other and the lamaniets killed all of the nephites. And God cursed them with black skin because of Thier impiety

  109. Anonymous says: is very clear what this article states, but I'm afraid after reading over the comments there is a very minute amount of you with the intellect to comprehend what is so easily spelled out for you to read. For those of you who did understand it I applaud you and I enjoyed your comments immensely. The article states that there are certain genetic markers that are indicative of our people "unique". We stand out as different. Can you really not read. I know let's blame the white man and talk about being stuck on a reservation and how another native is "talking white" are you ...ignorance is ridiculous my friend. He is speaking "white" although I do not see you posting in the native tongue of your people. The only difference is he "talks white" at a level of grammatical efficiency which far surpasses your mental capacity. Who is rasict...hypocrits. Maybe you should sit on your reservation and try to read a book and formulate a sentence so you might qualify yourself for a scholarship for an education in order to achieve a little self betterment....the whites do you wrongly and still are because you are not intelligent enough to stop it from happening. The people stuck o this Adam and Eve garbage might as well take that book and stick it straight where you got it. Oh that's right ...the white man who gave it to you in order for your people to be herded like cattle in order to gain control of you by your adherence to their laws and principles so they obtain control of the masses...even though your looking at an article which states blatantly it is a fictional story. The genetic markers could only take place if there were a genetic mutation if the story was in fact based in truth....which multiple blood types already prove it is not at all true but in fact impossible....and to whoever said we come from Noah after the flood...bravo genius observation there Einstein...Noah is a supposed descendent of Adam and why are you talking. The Mormons....Wow, is all I can say the article also discredits your beliefs since there is genetic proof above that says we also do not stem from the ancestors you say we do you bunch of rasicts.......nyaweh, thank you....... the educated indian, just call me the great white buffalo because you're showing me how rare of a trait that is

  110. Anonymous says:

    According to Edgar Cayce, the "Sleeping Psychic, who has been found to be right in so many of his readings, the Native American people's are descended from survivors of the sinking island continent of Atlantis and the ancient civilization of Lemuria in the Pacific.He has been right in so many other things that I'll bet he was right about this, too. That would explain the genetic difference between Native Americans and all others. I would bet that if you checked their DNA you would also find some relation between Native Americans and acient Egyptians, sinc survivors of Atlantis also were reputed to have gone there. I'm not nuts, just well read on the subject and open to other theories.

  111. I think this would be some an interesting watch for anyone who is interested.

  112. Anonymous says:

  113. Anonymous says:

    As for that person who said adam and eve i do not believe we come from 2 white people who supposedly were the first peoplem studies show that the first people were actually blackm but natives we come from here. I believe the stories my grandmother taught me

  114. Anonymous says:

    mi'kmaq--"the people", or "the red earth people"--red paint people probably? Asia, Northern Europe, America--North/South--all same people--brothers n' sisters--ice comes, ice goes--must be in different places over many different times--huntin edge of ice takes you lotta nice places--some stay n' look around--some keep on huntin'--go back and forth sometimes--lotta family everywhere! DNA pretty close same fer all--even mouse 98% like humans DNA--mouse pretty good brother too! Gisigu

  115. Anonymous says:

    there are two species of man good and evil that is all,we are all connected like it or not it's what you choose in your heart that makes you who you are.

  116. Michael says:

    We are created, not migrated. Native people share creation stories. Had we migrated, the elders would tell us so.

  117. Michael says:

    Neshnabek means Original People. Neshnabe means Original Man. Creator placed is on on the American continent. We did not walk here. We originate from here.

  118. Anonymous says:

    What about people who were born dark and ended growing up light skinned,?

  119. Beven says:

    I'd like to give your comments a like button.

  120. Anonymous says:

    Who said Adam and Eve were white? Adam means from the earth. I was taught Adam was the red color of earth. I was also taught that Ham one of Noah ' s sons had dark skin. But in truth I never met them.

  121. Anonymous says:

    We are losing our culture!!! Slowly, but surely we are being assimilated into white mans world. We are losing our language. How many anishinaabe do you know that speak the language?

  122. Anonymous says:

    Residential schools beat and punished our people for speaking the language. My older brothers attended these black robe schools. They spoke the anishinaabe language fluently. When they came home, they no longer knew the language.Thats where the beginning of the end of our language began. Our language is part of our culture. It identifies who we are.

  123. Anonymous says:

    To michael; neshnabek is in what language? anishinaabe is what we are. the meaning is lost people.

  124. unknown says:

    No American Natives did not come from Asia!! They walked here way before any other race and my ancestors told stories of Christ coming amongst them. The title of this article says we are unique with DNA and thats that.
    These findings also excluded the multiple mutations theory, because in this case there would have been myriad DNA patterns surrounding the 9-repeat allele.

    “Our work provides strong evidence that, in general, Native Americans are more closely related to each other than to any other existing Asian populations, except those that live at the very edge of the Bering Strait,” concluded Schroeder. (Source)
    I know that from history from our ancestors telling stories that there was no asian of any sort in our blood lines or DNA. So no we have our own unique DNA as the Tiltle of this article indicates. My mother and Father both suffered in these so called religious schools and it doesn't just stop at their generation but takes many, many generations for the hurt , humility, anger and what have you to go away.

  125. Anonymous says:

    I think their mix of African,East Asian,European,maybe some has Polynesian DNA. Native Americans rule!

  126. Anonymous says:

    I think Christ was a mix of all races...

  127. Conan C says:

    Why is it that no thought has been given to the theory that human beings, began on this continent? Could be that unsolvable mystery ...?...or maybe not ?
    One can really only guess on discoveries made after the fact!
    "ALWAYS BELIEVE " Anything "IS" Possible. .��

  128. Anonymous says:

    I am proud to have Native American in my family history.

  129. Anonymous says:

    “Our work provides strong evidence that,
    in general, Native Americans are more closely related to each other than to any other existing Asian populations, except those that live at the very edge of the Bering Strait,”
    concluded Schroeder.

    So there ya go.

  130. Anonymous says:

    Blessings to all

  131. Anonymous says:

    So, what is the genome? The reason I ask is I have U5b.

  132. Anonymous says:

    I find it so interesting that no matter what part of the world your in...the pakeha will try to prove a theory that the indigenous people of the land are not the original people! here in aotearoa not only have they concocted stories of maori coming in and takin nz from another race...but they have also concocted stories of white red head people being the original people...gotta love how they always try to find away to justify their ownership

  133. Anonymous says:

    My U5b group, which is Sami, has parallel spiritual beliefs with the Lakota Sioux.

  134. Anonymous says:

    As they have the group here 50,000 years before Natives and the blood line still in America's. That is 30,000 years before Native American's .And their history says they were killed and pushed off their land and into hiding. And they are not white or native. When is those here clearly longer given their do?

  135. Anonymous says:

    They are who they say they are, have always known. Get over it.

  136. Anonymous says:

    I had DNA done and it cam back as Ice Immigrants so now where did we actually come from maybe the idea of star people is the best answer

  137. Anonymous says:

    The excuse is "generational trauma". It would be nice if responsibility would be taken. Unfortunate to see that after all these years, not much has changed....

  138. Unknown says:

    Have there been any repeat studies to verify data.

  139. Anonymous says:

    The book of Mormon is a false story. It was based off the bible and childhood stories that Joseph made up. A better way to understand how native aboriginals came to earth in s the Hopi natives stories. The bible only accounts for so much and has been influenced by mankind. The Hopi and other natives passed oral history and they are kind people that do not lie to get any gain. We the thirteen tribes. Life didn't begin on any one continent. Humans are much older than historians will allow us to be.

  140. Anonymous says:

  141. Anonymous says:

    "WASHINGTON DC - Present-day Asians and Native Americans are descended from a group of people who were already in China 40,000 years ago, according to an analysis of fossil DNA published this week...The genetic analysis from the ancient bone showed similarities to genetic profiles from modern-day Asians and Native Americans, the researchers explained."

  142. Anonymous says:

    Many studies have already taken place by canadian,european, and other univeristies in the americas concluding native american's earliest ancestor is the same ancestor of modern day chinese in beijing. The same matriarchal lineage and dna from same original ancient mother. Aside from dna, the chinese uniquely share many of the same spiritual beliefs, principles and customs as the native americans which differs from europeans and other races... respecting elders, ancestral worship, giving of offerings on certain times of the year to past relatives/those who have passed on(day of the dead/spirits), superstitions, philosophies, the belief in spirits/ghosts, the afterlife, reincarnation, even clothing worn from ancient times are similar. Even the original practice of naming a new baby in china are decided by one of the most scholarly elders of the family clan because they believe names carry great significance, and who the child will grow up to be. Most Chinese people have 2 words that make up their name, it's always an adjective or verb paired with a noun. My mom's actual & literal name is Flying Mountain. My literal real name is Pretty Snow. My dad's is Bright Coming. There's so many more similarities, I've only listed a few. I've always noticed so many similarities. Even before all the dna testing &studies I've noticed all the similarites the more I learned about the native americans. The Chinese and Native Americans are family. If we did a geneology (dna) test, we'll discover we share the same ancestor.

  143. sharon ward says:

    I am a proud Aboriginal woman from Australia and skin colour does not define religion. Just like the colour of your eyes or hair define your intelligence. WE are ALL part of a very diverse world and should embrace and respect our ancestors. We r all related cos we live in the world as humans and every human being has a right to belong and feel respected regardless of who ate an apple or wandered in another person's back yard. It is the hatred and jealously of another human being that has led this world into divisions and persecution. PEACE TO THE WORLD AND OUR ANCESTORS. GOD BLESS.

  144. Anonymous says:

    Thankyou I'm glad I'm not the only one to gleen that we are original right down to our DNA.

  145. Anonymous says:

    Maybe Native Americans were on earth before Asians?

  146. Unknown says:

    I also meant to say that we are who we are and who we chose to be.

  147. Unknown says:

    Do we really want to deify our DNA? I do not care who my ancestors are because I had nothing to do with choosing them. We are who we are and who we chose to be.

  148. Anonymous says:

    I am a Taino Indian from the carribean , Dna results confirm my roots , I dont have a problem with the idea that my ancesters walked across the bering straight or possibly migrated across the paciffic , I do not belief in the hypotlsis that all amerindian tribes came from a single migration that is absurd!!!!!
    North American tribes have been so mixed they can no loger tell the difference , be latin american Indians we can tell the difference , for example natives from the south pacific are decendants of andean tribes , central American tribes ,which change around coasta rica , then ther is the amazinian tribes which are also i the carribean (Arawak tribes) there is a clear distinction among thease people , then you have the north American tibes ,and the alaskan tribes . Mexicans have been mis labled , they are in fact an amerindian tribe ,most of them are 90% native American a way higher percentage than is found in North America. There was multiple migrations into the Americas ,the North American migrations being some of the most recent and as you go south you find the older tribes. Who cares what one tribes oral tradition is science will rule over non science!

  149. Anonymous says:

    and maybe we were seeded here from another star entirely. or carried away, breeded and returned? i'm not concerned one way or another. i believe we should be more worried about what's happening here and now and less about whose ancestors stuck it to whom. if we peek back the skin, everything underneath looks the same. and, no, i'm not white, or purple.

  150. Anonymous says:

    sometimes I do get tired of hearing how wonderful the "native cultures" are, how amazing everything would be if everyone just went away and left us alone, how we are just so put upon. if 'they' didn't do this or that. OMG! don't you think it's time that native Americans, black Americans, white Americans and all other Americans quit blaming each other for everything and started helping one another? where would the country, hell, maybe the world be, if our energies went to good instead of bad? 'the white man did this', the black man' did that, native Americans are gonna kill them all and rule the world? is that what everyone thinks? because that's the only way out of the impasse you all think we're in! think about it, what is the practical solution? it's too late to put the genie back in the bottle. we have to start teaching them and guiding them into a better place, because, face it, they are here to stay. Europe won't take them back!

  151. Anonymous says:

    From some of your comments I think some of you might be related to Hilter

  152. Anonymous says:

    I agree all human beings whether you're African, European, Asian,Australian Aborigines, or Native American, all people share common origin somewhere. The source is most likely Africa, the oldest human fossils are found there and Africans have the greatest human genetic diversity. The distant Native American descend from people who left Africa and then settled into East and Central Asia. From Asia they settled into the Americas most likely via Siberia/Alaska

  153. Anonymous says:

    We did NOT come from Asia. Part of them came from us.

  154. Anonymous says:

    Do I understand the report to suggest the Native Americans had a common Asian DNA origin? But where, in Asia? In ancient times, Asia extended all the way from the areas we currently consider "Asia" west across India to the current Middle East, and on to areas bordering the Mediterranean. That can make a huge difference in their origin.

  155. Unknown says:

    Très intéressant , car j'ai toujours considéré les amérindiens comme un peuple unique. L'origine de l'homme est né en Afrique , mais la suite des découvertes laissent toujours des doutes... ADN à parlé, bonne chose.

  156. Anonymous says:

    They did not compare it with the Jews. Had they they would have found that the people, for the most part, would have been related. The Book of Mormon would have been genetically proven true.

  157. Anonymous says:

    This is why God gave the elders wisdom about clans not intermarrying. Awesome.

  158. Anonymous says:

    What about the East Coast NAs? Do we know where they came from?

  159. Anonymous says:

    There are lots of myths about where people came from and how special one's own tribe is. Myths have their role as a form of truth telling. But the fact is, science trumps mythology in matters of fact. DNA evidence shows that all people have ancestry in Africa. Those who migrated out of Africa for limited periods of time became genetically isolated, resulting in the so-called racial differences. Nevertheless, this same evidence shows that there was more than one migration out of Africa. These peoples mixed at different points in time, i.e. Eurasians, Denisovans and Neanderthals. All non-Africans are therefore of mixed "racial" origin.

  160. Anonymous says:

    I grew up in New Orleans and my Grandmother was Choctaw, but she was born in the city, and many Native people in New Orleans were missed by the Dawes count, as well as the fact that many people had already intermingled for many generations. It is a very mestizo city. Anyway, this makes me think of the first powwow I went to as a young woman. I told an elder I had no Dawes roll number as "proof" of my heritage, and I asked would I be able to respectfully participate in some of the activities? he said, "It does not matter how much or how little Native blood you have in your veins. You do not need proof on paper unless you need benefits from the government. You know your heritage in your heart. That is what brought you here today. The same blood always goes to your heart and your mind." Then he winked at me and said, "Most people never stop to think that all blood is red, and maybe, in the long-ago time, so were all people." I never forgot that.

  161. Anonymous says:

    "Anonymous says:
    We are losing our culture!!! Slowly, but surely we are being assimilated into white mans world. We are losing our language. How many anishinaabe do you know that speak the language?

    Anonymous says:
    I want to make it clear that absolutely nothing, and I mean that, NOTHING in our cultures have been lost."

    Actually you have lost a lot, it both pains and disgusts me to see Native American Indians worshipping on bent knees the white mans' fake version of a god after giving up their own traditions and beliefs to accomodate that. Why on earth would a people and culture so devastated by the white man for their god- change over and start worshipping that same invisible monster they do who stood by and did absolutely NOTHING while the Sand Creek massacre and scores of others went on and were cheered by these white church going settlers and the rest of them?
    They massacred Natives during the week, and on sunday they sang a few hymns and recited a few tired scripture readings and were "forgiven" by the pastor and on Monday they went right back out and killed some more with the approval and blessings of this same god!

    I see many Natives with white mans' christian based names like John, Joseph, Michael.

  162. Unknown says:

    I wonder if you know that your picture at the end of this article is the wise and respected elder, Maggie Black Kettle of the Sitsika Nation in southern Alberta. Among her many accomplishments, Maggie was a much loved teacher at Plains Indian Culture Survival School (PICSS). I had the honour to work with her there--she had a wicked sense of humour. Much love Maggie!

  163. Anonymous says:

    I'm red crows great great great grand daughter just started reading the book today. I'm proud to be black foot!! And I grew up a traditional life I've been practising speaking black foot. I encourage all my native people to visit the head smash buffalo jump in southern Alberta if you want to learn about the US black foots.

  164. Unknown says:

    All people on earth are related to the "mitochondrial eve," a woman in Africa some 200,000 years ago. We are all one people.

  165. Anonymous says:

    After 1492; was when the contamination of Black Native American DNA blood line begin! The RAPE of Black Native American women between the ages 12-50 years old by The White Europeans Males!

  166. Anonymous says:

    European: Asia, Russia, France, Spain, UK, Germany, portugal,Italy,

  167. Unknown says:

    The Aztecs who really are the Mexica were far advanced and sophisticated that their civilization rivaled any European of that time Cortez landed on Veracruz. They had cumpulsotory education for children. They had aqueducts to bring fresh water to the city. They had a written language and complex math. The Spanish describe the capital city at that time as clean, organized, with public rest rooms and waste disposal. It was said that Moctezuma bathed twice a day. They had soaps and fragrances derived from flowers. We are suppose to belive the murderous butchers like Cortez that the Aztecs practiced human sacrifice and canibalism? A Spanish priest Bartolome de las Casas wrote about the inhumane treatment of the natives of Hispaniola at the hands of the Conquistadors. For entertainment they would rape and then burn alive the native women. They would kill young children and cut them up to feed their dogs. After the fall of Tenochitlan (Mexico City), the priest burned all the codes but for a few and under duress, forced the scribes to write the Florentine codexes. How much knowledge was lost? The library of Alexandria was a tragic loss that the world recognizes. No one knows about the great loss of the knowledge of the Mexica. The story should be about how a savage barbarian people destroyed a great civilization. But the Spanish rewrote it as how they saved a people from human sacrifice and canibalism.

  168. when God broke up the one race...and created many races....that's where he sent the Indian races....

  169. Unknown says:

    I'm a white guy who thinks himself scientific. Any human alive now can trace her or his mitochondrial RNA back to the same source in Africa some many many many years ago. Travel takes time, especially when walking. We are all the same race and all of us colorfully hued to some degree or another so we are all huemen (...that may not be correct English but it is sound logic!) tcoq

  170. Anonymous says:

    Read "The lost book of Enki" there within is the anwser.

  171. Anonymous says:

    Here's a question. Years ago maybe 12/15 I came across information on a small village at the tip of South America, somewhat isolated who's DNA was traced back to the aboriginals of Australia. They were thought to be the oldest DNA of the Americas. Has anyone else ever heard of this village or people. There was only a few hundred left living.

  172. Unknown says:

    Ironically the Europeans can't seem to look at things objectively cause their politics and religion has taught them they are the center of the world. But they insist everyone else's culture and traditions are incorrect compared to them. The DNA evidence stated that Native Americans are more related to each other than any other group. But they are "somewhat related to peoples on the west coast of the Bering strait. If you follow the ridiculous time line that the Europeans have conjured up (which matches their political ideas) Natives traveled east from the Bering strait and slowly populated the continent. Yet the earliest findings are Not in North America of ancient people but in South America by thousands of years. The people traveled from a warm life nuturing womb of the south. Not some Mythical land of snow and ice like Europeans like to imagine the Caucasian people began. Live always begins in a warm environment of plenty, from their it spends out. The facts as they are now presented lean more towards people migrating out of the Eden of South America, with its moderate climate and abundance of water plant and animal life that would support early ancient man. Where he would leave this area and go out to explore and settle North America and beyond. If the out of Africa theory is a sound theory why can't the out of America also be just as sound. Unless some cannot stop their Eurocentric ideas of politics and religion from getting in the way.

  173. 1sbwa says:

    So I wS reading how nothing has been lost. Just not true at all. There are large tribes wiped out to the point there are no name for them and that long before Chris got here and on every America.
    That the tribe in South America right now hold that they were here long before those in North. In fact they were here thousands of years with no contact with any but there own.
    Their blood line still here. But their history is they were attacked and killed and had to hide away from their land to live.
    We know when this happened by the bodies and how old and the changes.
    And of course the findings over seas shows first that the one large nation broke into many. And the ages of the oldest humans on earth are there.
    The cave drawings there need some explanation as they are of bison in countries where there are none.
    Let's get back to the lost tribes. It is clear that natives killed natives. Starved them. Stole from others. Enslaved others making them take on their beliefs and languages after killing those they found useless. And all for things. Greed. Or just to plain kill.
    Strange enough some tribes brag about setting up other tribes to fight each and going in and finishing the job.
    And of course there is the findings that their have been others who have come right along that natives have no stories for.
    As for illnesses. Why is it that the 2 that came from natives still kills more all over the world even today?
    That fact is there have been tribes wipeing out other tribes.
    I always like the one about how Spain walked in and wiped out this peaceful nation with their better weapons because of gold.
    They like to leave out the native nation had been blood thirsty for hundreds of years. That 5 or so went to meet them and were killed. That there was only a little over a hundred that went in againist thousands. That both sides had spears and bow and arrows and knifes.
    You see guns were not around then. They did not make here for many years because Spain at war with France.
    And of course English not here till 1600s boat attacked right off the bat. And natives kept attacking for years. Starting with killing all who tried to go out for clean or food. And of course there was the Pearl Harbor like attack to commit GENOCIDE on Jamestown in less than 20 years. The kicker is that 349 men, woman and children were killed. What few lived were saved by natives who became Christian. And they were very few.
    And of course we can go to Plymouth Rock and find that only 50+ made it to land starving from the losses of food and they were attacked while looking for food in a village of dead.
    And of course you hear damn little about the gang like tribe who demanded payment from the smaller tribes there. And when they did not pay they would raid killing and taking everything and leave them to starve.
    And of course that friendly native. Well he had his own problems and decided to interpret in a way to pi k fights. Wasn't till children learned language and told others he was lying. But by then it was too late and natives handed with whites to go after the gang.
    Now here is a point easy to follow. Not all natives walked the trails. In fact the Cherokee at the end knew who was the blame and at the end killed all the male chiefs who had SOLD the land as well as all males in their families.
    That stuck on the Rez poor till 1952. Well the head chief moved by Washington DC for the rest of his life.
    Then you might look up the family that lived in what was called the White House built in 1800s. And take a look at the famous son who not only went all over the world but lived in CA owning one hell of a lot of land he bought all before 1952.
    You look and you find many from many tribes who not only became very rich but also moved off the Rez's.
    When you see a story and we do. Mostly we hear only that in which is to make one side look bad. Use Google and find the whole story. No one was peaceful and no one's hands are clean. And that is the fact.

  174. Anonymous says:

    there are native americans from Canada to Argentina, all with very similar DNA, compare a navajo and a bolivian native american, they probably are more related that we fellow mestizos from their own countries.

  175. Anonymous says:

    some of us study our DNA. Too bad this article did not give the chromosome that has the 9-repeat Allelle, and tell us how to find it....and also the report did not give which tribes they sampled and when.... i know how to find NativeAmericanIndian in anyone's DNA with Gedmatch tools. If you want a copy of my file, free, just email me.

  176. We Arapaho have an oral history called "Broken Horn", passed on from generation to generation tracing our migrations that starts in Asia and as we passed through the Bering Strait a child noticed a horn protruding up through the ice. The convinces a grandparent to chop the horn out for a toy, the belongs to a creature under the ice and when the horn is severed blood gushes forth and the creature breaks up the ice causing a split in the People. Some are left behind and others continue the eastward migration and through generations we Arapaho end up in the northeastern part of Canada where we encountered a tall light skinned hairy people with horns on their heads. They were mean and vicious and traveled in boats that resembled beasts. We Arapaho started a westward migration that led us to the great Plains where we became the mediums of Trade from the Hudson Bay trading posts to the Grand Canyon and on into Mexico.

  177. The vikings must of encountered the Arapaho according to your story. I would like to add that verbal accounts passed down has the strongest validity which gets dismissed by those doing the ‘scientific’ kinds of study.

  178. I keep reading over and over in these comments, that it's conclusive that native americans came from Asia... lol! My question is, did you read this at all? “Our work provides strong evidence that, in general, Native Americans are more closely related to each other than to any other existing Asian populations, except those that live at the very edge of the Bering Strait,” concluded Schroeder."

  179. Awaken says:

    What is it about these Native Americans that draws me to them, specifically the Cherokee nation. A bond that I can't shake.

  180. Wasn't it established that a Blackfeet Native, living in Montana, has the OLDEST DNA of Polynesian origin, in North America? 13,000+ years old?

  181. Anonymous says:

    Native American tribes speak of Giants in the land when their ancestors 'arrived'...whoever said they didn't kill anyone for the land. Giant remains have been found all over the America's

  182. A white man says:

    If the white man had not settled in in America the Indian would be speaking Japanese or German or maybe Spanish or French! I agree the red man and black man have been badly mistreated. Good or bad that is our history! I have always been interested in the native American culture and have always wondered who was here first and who will come later! I believe America is about to fall. We have been sold out to our enemies. GOD BLESS AND GOD BLESS AMERICA...ROY

  183. Anonymous says:

    Dear Friends and Family:
    This Here gives us the right to call ourselves "American" and Designate everybody else by their Migration Names. So Those so-called americans are now Euro-Americans... because we don't come from Eurasia, we're American Race.
    So there are 2 Human Races, American Race and the Eurasian Race!

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